There are many types of eye problems and visual disturbances which may include: blurred vision, halos, blind spots, floaters and other symptoms. Blurred vision is the loss of visual acuity and the inability to see small details. Blind spots (scotomas) are dark "holes" in the visual field in which you can not see anything.
Changes in vision, blind spots, halos around lights, blurring or dimness in vision should always be evaluated by a medical professional. These changes may represent an eye disease, aging, eye injury or a disease like diabetes that affects many organs in the body.
Whatever the cause, vision changes should never be ignored as they may worsen and affect their quality of life. Professional help is always needed. As you determine which professional to consult the following descriptions may help:
* Opticians dispense glasses and do not diagnose eye problems.
* Optometrists perform eye exams and may diagnose eye problems. They prescribe eyeglasses and contact lenses and, in some states, they treat diseases that affect the eye.
* Ophthalmologists are physicians who specialize in the diagnosis and treatment of eye diseases. Also perform eye surgeries. These doctors may also provide routine vision care services, such as prescribing glasses and contact lenses.
* Sometimes an eye problem is part of a general health condition, in which case the doctor should also be involved.
The changes and problems can be caused by many different conditions. Some include:
* PresbiopíaPresbiopía: difficulty focusing on objects that are nearby. Often becomes noticeable 40 to 45 years.
* CataratasCataratas: a clouding of the lens of the eye that leads to having a poor night vision, halos around lights and sensitivity to glare. The vision in the day is eventually affected. Cataracts are common in the elderly.
* GlaucomaGlaucoma: increased pressure in the eye, causing impaired vision at night, blind spots and loss of vision in either side. Is a major cause of blindness. Glaucoma can happen gradually or suddenly in the latter case, it is an emergency.
* DiabéticaRetinopatía diabetic retinopathy, this complication of diabetes can lead to bleeding into the retina and is another common cause of blindness.
* MacularDegeneración macular degeneration: loss of central vision, blurred vision (especially while reading), distorted vision (like seeing a wave lines) and colors appearing faded. This is a major cause of blindness in people over 60 years.
* Infection, inflammation or eye injury.
* Fly ash volantesMoscas: tiny particles drifting across the eye. Although often brief and harmless, can be a sign of retinal detachment.
* NocturnaCeguera Night Blindness
* RetinaDesprendimiento detachment of the retina whose symptoms include floaters, flashes of light across the visual field or a sensation of a shade or curtain hanging on one side of the visual field.
* ÓpticaNeuritis optic neuritis: inflammation of the optic nerve from infection or multiple sclerosis múltipleesclerosis. It may hurt to move your eye or touch it through the eyelid.
* Cerebrovascular accident or AITAIT cerebrovascularAccidente
* CerebralTumor Brain Tumor
* Intraocular bleeding
* TemporalArteritis temporal arteritis: inflammation of an artery in the brain that supplies blood to the optic nerve.
* CefaleaCefalea: points of light, halos, or zigzag patterns are common symptoms before the headache.
Other potential causes of vision problems include fatigue, overexposure to the outdoors (temporary and reversible blurring of vision) and many medications.
Drugs that can affect vision include antihistamines, anticholinergics, digitalis derivatives (temporary), some blood pressure pills (guanethidine, reserpine, and thiazide diuretics), indomethacin, phenothiazines (like Compazine for nausea, Thorazine and Stelazine for schizophrenia) , medications for malaria, ethambutol (for tuberculosis) and many others.
Call your doctor if you have any problems with your vision.
Call your doctor if
* Presented in part or total cegueraceguera in one or both eyes, even if only temporarily.
* We have double vision, even if temporary.
* Has a sensation of a shade being pulled over your eyes or a curtain being drawn from the side.
* Appear suddenly blind spots, halos around lights, or areas of distorted vision.
* Presented eye pain, especially if also red, as this is a medical emergency.
* Trouble seeing both sides
Difficulty seeing at night or to read
* Gradual loss of visual acuity
Difficulty distinguishing colors
* Blurred vision when trying to view objects near or far
* Diabetes or family history of this condition
* Itching or discharge in the eye
* Vision changes that seem related to medication (DO NOT stop or change medications without talking to your doctor)
What to expect at the doctor's office
The doctor will check vision, eye movements, pupils, the back of the eye (called the retina) and eye pressure when needed. If required, there will be a general medical evaluation.
The doctor will ask questions about visual problems such as:
* When did this begin? Did it occur suddenly or gradually?
* How often does it occur? How long?
* When does it occur? "At night? "In the morning?
* Is the problem in one or both eyes?
* Blurred vision or double presents?
* Do you have blind spots?
* Are there areas of black or not seen?
* Is there no side vision (peripheral)?
* Are halos (circles of light) seen around shiny objects or lights?
* Do you see flashing lights or zigzag lines?
* Luzsensibilidad have sensitivity to light?
* Do stationary objects seem to move?
* Are colors missing? Is it difficult differentiation?
* Does it hurt?
* Are your eyes crossed? Is there a deviation of one or both eyes?
* Have you had an injury, infection, allergy symptoms, added stress, anxiety, feelings of depression, fatigue or headache in the last weeks or months? Have you been exposed to pollens, wind, sunlight or chemicals? Have you used any soap, lotion, or cosmetics?
* Is your vision better after you rest?
* Is it better with corrective lenses?
* Are there other symptoms such as redness, swelling, headache, pain, itching, discharge, drainage, a sense of having a foreign object in the eye, increased or decreased tearing, etc..?
* What medications do you take?
* Do you have diabetes or a family history of diabetesdiabetes?
Some diagnostic tests may include:
* HendiduraExamen lamp exam Slit-lamp
* Consideration of refractive refracciónExamen
Treatment depends on the cause. Surgery is recommended for some conditions (such as cataratascataratas) and diabetics should monitor their blood glucose levels glucemianiveles.
The regular eye checkups from an ophthalmologist or optometrist are important and should be done once a year for people over 65 years. Your doctor will recommend more frequent exams and earlier if you have diabetes or already showing early signs of eye problems from diabetes, hypertension or other causes.
In some doctor visits, will be measured to assess ocular pressure for glaucoma. Periodically conduct a dilation of eyes to examine the retina for any signs of problems due to aging, hypertension or diabetes.
Here are some other important measures to be taken to prevent problems in the eye and vision:
* Wear sunglasses to protect eyes
* No smoking
* Limiting the amount of alcohol consumed
* Keep your blood pressure and cholesterol under control
* Keep your blood sugars under control if you have diabetes
* Eat foods rich in antioxidants, like green leafy vegetables